Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are relevant technological metals for the future of the lithium-ion battery (LIB) industry. Based on the current and projected demand for these, an increased interest in developing processing routes to exploit lateritic occurrences has been observed, as these are reported as critical raw materials for future mineral–metallurgical industry. However, the content of Ni and Co in such ores is minimal and requires impracticable mineral-processing operations for concentration before metal extraction. It was identified that information regarding the sulfation roasting of this material is scarce on what concerns the iron sulfates interaction as a function of the temperature. Based on that context, the present work has its purposes associated with the proposition of an alternative chemical pretreatment to upgrade the content of metals of technological interest in lateritic ores through a simple roast–leach process. Thus, the chemical interactions between the mineral sample and iron (III) sulfate (Fe2 (SO4 )3 ) through thermodynamic simulations and experimental procedures were explored. The latter included specific water leaching practices for the selective concentration of metals. The equilibrium calculations indicate that Fe2 (SO4 )3 and FeSO4 tend to decompose at lower temperatures, and considering the higher stability of other metal sulfates, it could be an interesting reagent in this type of process. Regarding the experimental results, the characterization of materials indicates a recovery of Co as high as 73.4 wt.% after sulfation roasting at 500 ◦C followed by water leaching, with the full content of Iron (Fe) being reported in the insoluble phase. Based on these findings, the present development could be an interesting alternative to consider within operations for the chemical upgrade of cobalt in such types of mineralogical occurrences.