We investigate, by means of first-principles calculations, the role of hBN point defects on the energetical stability and electronic structure of heterostructures composed of graphene atop hBN, rotated at angles of 13.17°, 9.43° and 7.34°. We consider, as possible point defects, boron and nitrogen vacancies and antisites, substitutional oxygen at the nitrogen site ON, substitutional carbon dimers, and nitrogen interstitials. The electronic and structural properties of all defects were analyzed. Among these, the most stable is ON, with negative formation energies at several possible rotation angles and chemical environments. Under such conditions, ON doping can raise the Fermi level of the neutral system by as much as 1 eV relative to graphene's Dirac point, reaching the band crossing between adjacent Dirac cones at the M point of the heterostructure Brillouin zone. This could lead to interesting electronic transport properties without the need for electrostatic doping.
Despite the advanced stage of diamond thin-film technology, with applications ranging from superconductivity to biosensing, the realization of a stable and atomically thick two-dimensional diamond material, named here as diamondene, is still forthcoming. Adding to the outstanding properties of its bulk and thin-film counterparts, diamondene is predicted to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with spin polarized bands. Here, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the formation of diamondene by performing Raman spectroscopy of double-layer graphene under high pressure. The results are explained in terms of a breakdown in the Kohn anomaly associated with the finite size of the remaining graphene sites surrounded by the diamondene matrix. Ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are employed to clarify the mechanism of diamondene formation, which requires two or more layers of graphene subjected to high pressures in the presence of specific chemical groups such as hydroxyl groups or hydrogens.
In this work we have used atomically-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to study the interplay between the atomic and electronic structure of graphene formed on copper via chemical vapor deposition. Scanning tunneling microscopy directly revealed the epitaxial match between a single layer of graphene and the underlying copper substrate in different crystallographic orientations. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we have directly measured the electronic density of states of graphene layers near the Fermi level, observing the appearance of a series of peaks in specific cases. These features were analyzed in terms of substrate-induced perturbations in the structural and electronic properties of graphene by means of atomistic models supported by density functional theory calculations.