Speziali MG, da Silva AGM, de Miranda DMV, Monteiro AL, Robles-Dutenhefner PA
. Air stable ligandless heterogeneous catalyst systems based on Pd and Au supported in SiO2 and MCM-41 for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling in aqueous medium
. Applied Catalysis a-GeneralApplied Catalysis a-General. 2013;462:39-45.Abstract
Palladium and palladium-gold containing siliceous-MCM-41 and sol-gel palladium and palladium-gold silica composites have been prepared. The catalytic performance of incorporated Pd/MCM-41, Au-Pd/MCM-41 and Pd and Au-Pd/SiO2 sol-gel catalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction was determined and the influence of the matrix and the catalyst composition on the catalytic activity were also studied. The catalysts were characterized by N-2 physisorption (BET/BJH methods), X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction analysis, H-2 chemisorption, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The silica-containing palladium and palladium-gold catalysts prepared using the MCM-41 matrix showed greater catalytic activity than using the conventional sol-gel method; however, gold had a significant influence on this reaction. The catalyst did not undergo metal leaching and could be easily recovered and re-used (reused). (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sinisterra RD, Speziali MG, Guimaraes PPG, da Silva AM
. Panorama of the Intellectual Property, Technology Transfer and Innovation for the Brazilian Chemistry and Comparison with the Bric Countries
. Quimica NovaQuímica Nova. 2013;36:1527-1532.Abstract
Based on Science, Technology & Innovation (ST&I) indicators, Brazil is a competitive and interesting country from the point of view of technological foreign investment. However, it is still incipient with regard to national investments, production of technological knowledge, inbound mobility of scientists and technology transfer to the productive sector. Among many other factors, global patent production is considered as an important indicator of innovation. Likewise, the balance between revenue and expenses obtained through royalties and licensing fees of technologies is also critical in mapping the diffusion and absorption of knowledge. The understanding of intellectual property and its strategic management brings a significant advantage to the economic and technological development of nations, especially in the field of chemistry, which greatly contributes to biotechnology, new materials and microelectronics - three fundamental areas for innovation in developed countries. Therefore, this article aims to map out competencies in chemistry in Brazil and evaluate science, technology and innovation indicators in the country, comparing this dynamic to the one of other BRIC members (Russia, India and China). Chemistry is the fourth biggest field of interest in Brazil based on the number of researchers registered at the governmental platform for researchers, Plataforma Lattes/CNPq, and is preceded by education, medicine and agronomy. The majority of research groups are registered in the area of materials, followed by macromolecules and polymers, pharmaceutical products and basic materials chemistry. These groups represent approximately 77% of research groups analyzed, therefore, indicating a tendency in the country. The analyses of patents in different sub-areas of chemistry reveal that non-residents file most deposits in the country, a probable reflection of the low internal intellectual property culture. Pharmaceutics and Fine Chemistry are prominent areas in the country, in line with the global trend. Among BRIC countries, China has the highest number of patents and of requests for protection in international offices. On the other hand, Brazil has the lowest number of chemical patents published at USPTO, EPO and JPO. An analysis of the transfer of technology data indicates an increase in this activity in various sub-areas of chemistry in the country. Despite the great efforts made by the country to consolidate its national innovation system, more needs to be done to put Brazil in a competitive position. In a globalized world dominated by large players, Brazil needs a lot of progress on ownership and generation of chemistry technologies to strengthen its national sovereignty. It is essential to strengthen chemical research at all levels, from elementary school to university, as an inexhaustible source of knowledge and technology that, when properly protected, may generate real public achievement and social return.